Ananda Marga Yoga Society

Founder : He is known to his followers as Marga Guru Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (which means "He who attracts others as the embodiment of bliss"), but is also known as Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar (his birth name), or Ba'Ba (which means father). 1

Date of Birth : May 21, 1921-October 21, 1990. 2

Birth Place : The small town of Jamalpur in Bihar, India. 3

Year Founded : 1955 in Jamalpur, Bihar, India. 4

Sacred or Revered Texts : Although there aren't any sacred texts in Ananda Marga, there are works by the founder of Ananda Marga and other writers that are used as a philosophical skeleton to help guide the members. The founder used the name Shrii Shrii Anandamurti when he wrote books on spiritual topics and the name Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar when he authored books on other areas. The first book was Ananda Marga- Elementary Philosophy that was written by Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, and outlines the philosophy of Ananda Marga. Besides this book, there are many more books that outline the philosophy of Ananda Marga and other important doctrines written by Anandamurti and others. These books can be found on the Ananda Marga Homepage. 5

Size of Group : The largest concentrations of Ananda Marga are located in India and in the Phillipines, but members are found throughout the world and can be found in most countries. "Though it has been suggested that this 'revolutionist' movement has several million adherents, the actual membership is undoubtedly very much smaller" 6 . Worldwide, there are spiritual and social activity centers in over 160 countries. 7


History

Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar was born on May 21, 1921 on Vaesha'Khii Pu'rn'ima', or Buddha Pu'rn'ima' (the day of the full moon of the lunar month). He was the fourth child in a family of eight. 8

He was a bright student who eventually went to Vidyasagar College in Calcutta, and it was here that his spiritual powers manifested. The story of his first disciple is said to have taken place when he was a freshman in college in 1939. One night Sarkar took his usual walk along the banks of the Ganges and sat down to rest and there went into a state of meditation. A man by the name of Kalicharan came up to him and tried to rob him. Sarkar acted very calmly and began to talk to Kalicharan and finally asked him if he was interested in changing his life. As Sarkar continued to talk, Kalicharan became captivated and ended up bathing in the river and becoming the first sadhaka (spiritual aspirant) initiated to the spiritual path by Sarkar. Kalicharan then changed his name to Kalikananda. This event occurred on a full moon in August, Shra'van'ii Pu'rn'ima', and every year this date is celebrated. 9

In 1941 Sarkar passed the intermediate science exam and went to work on the railway where his father had worked. During this time before the establishment of the Ananda Marga Yoga Society, Sarkar built up a following. He was evidently able to look over his followers with his "omniscient power" and the ability to see whether they correctly observed yama and hiyama (the ten cardinal principles of morality). 10

In 1954 Sarkar told his senior sadhakas that he would be establishing a new organization and preparations went under way for the inauguration (by-laws and articles of association were drawn up), which would take place on January 1, 1955. On this date, Sarkar and his followers met at house 339 at the Rampur Rail Colony where he was instated as the organization's founder-president. The organization took the name of Ananda Marga Pracaraka Samgha, "The Society for the Propagation of Ananda Marga Ideology," which would be better known as the Ananda Marga Yoga Society. 11

The name "Ananda Marga" came from a relationship with saint Brghu. Saint Brghu had attained Brahma (infinite consciousness) after a long period of penance. From this infinite bliss, the universe and its entities were created. In this bliss (Ananda) everything flourishes and in the end everything also returns to Ananda and merges with it. Because of this, Ananda is the same as Brahma. 12

After the founding of Ananda Marga, Sarkar started to train missionaries to spread his teaching of "self-realization and service to humanity" (which became the motto of Ananda Marga) into India and the rest of the world, and in 1962 initiated the first monk (called Dada, meaning elder brother) of Ananda Marga. He followed this with the creation of an order of nuns (called Didis, meaning elder sister) in 1966. 13 In 1963, Sarkar established the Education Relief and Welfare Section (ERAWS) of Ananda Marga. ERAWS has created schools, colleges, homes for children, hospitals all over the world. 14 Sarkar also created the theory of PROUT (Progressive Utilization Theory) in 1959 which is a theory of how to end social and economic injustice in society and the world. 15

In December 1971 Sarkar was arrested and charged with murder which was later reduced to the charge of "abetment to murder" and had no trial for four years. When he finally had a trial he was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison. After Indira Gandhi fell from power in 1978 he was granted a new trial and found innocent. Sarkar and Ananda Marga have sparked much controversy due to its political activism. In the early and mid- 1970s, the Indian government considered the organization a terrorist organization that taught its members ritual murder. He continued to work to expand his philosophy and also Ananda Marga to the rest of the world until his death in 1990. 16

Because Sakar's philosophy of "service to humanity" covers such a broad base of ideas, his organization is made up of numerous branches dedicated to different aspects that Ananda Marga focuses on, such as environmental awareness and disaster relief. Under environmental awareness, he used the term "Neo-Humanism" to define his belief that one should extend humanism to love for animals and plants as well as people. 17 With this belief, he established a global plant exchange program to save plant species around the world and also established animal sanctuaries around the world. Under disaster relief, Ananda Marga has created two organizations to help with disaster relief efforts. AMURT (Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team) and AMURTEL (Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team Ladies) were created in 1965 and 1977 respectively.

AMURT was first founded to help victims of the numerous floods in India but has eventually expanded globally to 80 countries. Each sector is independent (choice of projects and obtaining funds) but can obtain technical help from other sectors. In each country that AMURT exists, it not only helps with disaster relief but also works with helping to develop the country. They follow the method called "co-operative development" which is when workers of AMURT work with the people to help improve their situation through construction, agriculture, and water preservation. It also participates in social programs such as owning and running schools, renovating schools, training teachers, running children's homes, and providing medical aid. 18

AMURTEL is the sister organization of AMURT and is geared toward the specific needs of women and their families and is also run by women. AMURTEL provides medical care for pregnant and nursing mothers, helps educate women in home industry such as tailoring, handicraft, and commercial food production, and also promotes effective birth control. AMURTEL also sets up relief and refugee camps, distributes food, medicine and clothing, provides cheap kitchens and nutrition classes, and aids underprivileged children by running low tuition schools. It also sponsors homes and halfway houses for children, the elderly, the handicapped, battered women, and also run cheap hostels for underprivileged students. 19

Today, Ananda Marga is a worldwide organization with centers in over 160 countries, including the United States. 20


Beliefs

The ideology of the group is universal and it stresses the unity of human society. Criticizing religions and other spiritual paths is strongly discouraged and the group has a strong commitment to bring progress to the whole of human society (and other creatures) by doing service to the suffering in all kinds of ways. To this effect, Sakar created organizations such as AMURT, AMURTEL, and the philosophy of PROUT to carry out the activities to achieve this progress.

His philosophy of PROUT called for economic democracy, which is maintaining human rights, and giving control of the economy to the local level rather than "a handful of leaders [who] misappropriate the political and economic power of the state." He also called for the election of competent, educated, and moral people into public office rather than candidates who rely on money to win an election, a balanced economy by controlling industry on the local level, redistributing cultivatable land, and putting money into productive ventures such as railroads. Sakar said that science and technology should be guided by Neo- humanistic principles. He wanted the establishment of a welfare system and fair taxation, social and economic justice, women's rights, and the creation of a world government with a global bill of rights, global constitution, and global justice system. 21

The group’s dislike of narrow-mindedness is very apparent in the philosophy of Neo- Humanism, which is the belief that one should extend humanism to love for animals and plants as well as people. This philosophy of Neo-Humanism is carried over into education through Ananda Marga schools, which are located throughout the world, including the United States. 22

Ananda Marga practices Tantra Yoga, and since it is considered a practical science (intuitional science of the mind). Yoga is an important practice in following Ananda Marga. Tantra yoga was founded by Lord Sadashiva who was also the interpretor of the Tantra which is a mystical tradition of Eastern India. Tantra means "liberation through expansion" and so the practice of Tantra yoga is to free one's mind. Tantra yoga the universe is a part of Brahma which is the Supreme Conscious Being. It is said that Brahma is split up into two parts, the Eternal Consciousness (Shiva) and creative power (Shakti). All living things apparently identify with material and mental goods made by Shakti and are not fully connected with Shiva. When one becomes human they can increase their identification with Shiva, the Eternal Consciousness through meditation. By reestablishing equilibrium between Shakti and Shiva, a person can return to a state of Eternal Bliss or the state of Brahma. Brahma can be experienced through Tantra Yoga by exploring and mastering the mind to the point where it realizes its connection with Brahma. Tantra Yoga uses two ways to connect with Brahma. One way is by releasing a person from addictive activities and the other is to practice yoga. Yoga helps a person overcome their addictions and also deepen a person's feeling of connection with Brahma. The end product is the experience of the Eternal Bliss. The correct ways of meditating are taught by Acharyas who give initiation and lessons on yoga as representatives of the Guru (God). 23

Ananda Marga uses the Sixteen Points 24 , created by P.R. Sarkar, which is an important system of spiritual practices, to help guide its followers to maximize their own personal growth. Although few people can actually follow the Sixteen Points perfectly, these practices can help balance the physical, mental, and spiritual parts of human life. Members of Ananda Marga are encouraged to try and follow these points as strictly as possible. Below is a basic outline of the Sixteen Points, provided by "Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Practices" edited by Tarak, but it is suggested that they should be learned from a person who has experienced them. The Sixteen Points are split up into two sections and are as follows:

Jaeva Dharma (Maintenance of Existence)

Use of Water
Water should be poured over the genital area after passing urine. Pouring cool water over this area counteracts this heat build-up and causes the muscles to contract, thereby entirely emptying the urinary bladder. The reason for this practice is because any residual urine in the bladder can cause a glandular imbalance and result in disease, excessive sexual stimulation, and general wastage of physical and mental energy. 25

Skin
If possible, males should be circumcised. This prevents many diseases and maintains all-round cleanliness. If not circumcised, males should clean and pull back the foreskin regularly, so as to prevent the accumulation of urine sediments. 26

Joint Hair
Hair under the arms, on the legs and in the pubic area should not be shaved. It grows naturally to provide a balance in body heat and is important for good health. Joint hair (armpits and genitals) should be cleaned with soap daily and oiled with coconut oil. 27

Underwear
Males should wear a laungota to protect the genital area, prevent excessive sexual stimulation and divert the seminal flow. Women should wear bra and underwear to protect the genital area, prevent excessive sexual stimulation and prevent infections. 28

Vya'Paka Shaoca (Half Bath)
This practice is done before meditation, meals, and sleep. To take a half-bath one systematically cleans certain areas of the body with cool water, the genital area, knees, calves, feet, elbows, lower arms, mouth, eyes, nose, back of the mouth, throat, tongue, ears, and back of neck. This is done to prevent build-up of body heat; it also helps relax the body creating an ideal calm state for meditation. 29

Bath
A full bath should be taken at least once a day. Cool water (all water used should be no higher than body temperature) should be used unless one has a cold. If one does have a cold, lukewarm water should be used in a closed area. Baths should be taken four times a day at very specific times, the morning, noon, evening, and midnight. The wet skin should be dried either by sunlight or light from a white light bulb. 30

Food
"It is preferable to eat sentient food rather than mutative food, while static food should be avoided." The reason for this is that mutative foods contain stimulants and static foods requires one to kill an animal and is unhealthy for the body. Meals should be eaten at regular times throughout the day and no more than four meals should be eaten. Other meal etiquette should be followed such as not eating when one is not hungry, drinking plenty of water throughout the day, and eating with others rather than alone. 31

Bha'Gavad Dharma (The Path to Salvation)

Upavasa
Members of Ananda Marga should fast the eleventh day after the full or new moon (Ekadshii), and should not eat food or drink water during this time. A person that is pregnant or suffers from medical ailments does not need to fast. "Fasting generates willpower" and "generates empathy with the sufferings of the poor and also of animals and plants." 32

Sa'Dhana'
This word defines the conscious effort that a person takes to achieve the goal of enlightenment. "An aspirant enters the realm of Sadhana by receiving initiation into the process of meditation." This initiation is important to the life of a spiritual seeker as he/she learns about meditation, which is made up of a system of six lessons. Meditation is taught by an Acarya, or teacher and it should be done twice a day. As well as meditation, Sadhana is also made up of other spiritual practices. 33

Madhuvidya (also called Guru mautra) - It is the second lesson in Ananda Marga's system of meditation. It should be performed before sleeping, eating, meditating, and bathing. 34

Sarva'tmaka Shaoca - Meaning "all round cleanliness." A person's body, clothes, and environment should be kept clean. A person should keep their mind clear. 35

Tapah - Meaning service. Sarkar outlines four services and one should try and perform all four types of service every day. 36

Bhuta Yajina - "Service to the created world." One should be kind to animals, plants, and inanimate objects. 37

Pitr Yajina - "Service to ancestors." 38

Nr Yajina - "Service to humanity." There are four different ways to perform this: physical labor, giving financial support, physical strength and courage, and using one's intellectual strength. Paincaseva (five services) should be done daily and can be accomplished by distributing free food, selling cheap vegetarian food, distributing clothing, medical supplies, or books and educational supplies. 39

Adhya'tma Yajina - "Spiritual Service." An internal form of service throughout the day and during meditation. 40

Sva'dhya'ya - To understand spiritual materials fully. By reading Sarkar's books, one is able to clearly understand what the goal to reach for is. By reading, one is also able to understand one's own spiritual experiences. 41

Asanas (or Innercises) - These yoga postures should be done in the presence of an Acarya and done twice a day (morning and evening). 42

Pashas and Ripus - Individuals acquire eight pa'shas (bondages) as they interact with the world around them. These bondages are shame, fear, doubt, hatred, pride of decent, pride of culture, egoistic feeling, and hypocrisy. There are also six internal bondages, which are physical desire, anger, greed, attachment, pride, and envy. To control the internal bondages, Sadhana is used and Yama and Niyama are used to control the societal bondages. 43

Kiirtan - A spiritual dance that should be done before Sadhana. This dance loosens the body to help the ease of movement and also helps create a calm state of mind. 44

Pa'incajanya - Every morning at 5 a.m. one should follow the yoga routine of kiirtan and sadhana. This is the time when spiritual elevation can be optimized. 45

Guru Saka'sha - This means to be near the Guru. At dawn, when one rises, one should think of Guru and do internal service to him. 46

Is'ta - This term defines "the chosen ideal." It is the goal of the Absolute, which is personalized for us. "No negative remarks against the Guru should be tolerated and duties given by the Guru should be followed." 47

A'darsha - The term means ideology. "The path by which [a person] move[s] towards [their] chosen goal. [A person] should not compromise [their] ideology nor allow others to ridicule it without making an effort to explain [their] position properly and logically. One should read Baba's books and become competent in the spiritual and social philosophy of Ananda Marga." 48

Conduct Rules - One should strictly follow the Conduct Rules. These rules help during Sadhana by helping keep one's ideation. Understanding and following of Yama, Hiyama, the 15 Shiilas (Social Conduct rules), the Supreme Command, the One Point Local (one should not compromise the sanctity of Is'ta, A'darsha, the Conduct Rules, and Supreme Command) and the 40 Social Norms will help one maintain mental equilibrium. 49

Supreme Command - This is the "fundamental guidepost for all Margiis to follow." One should follow the Supreme Command strictly. 50

Dharmacakra - This is the weekly collective meditation sessions. In these sessions, one can be in the company of the Absolute Entity, or the Lord. "If one misses Dharmacakra, one should go to the jagriti (house of spiritual awakening) and perform sadhana that day." If jagriti is also missed, a meal should be missed and given to a needy person. 51

Oaths - Every morning one should think about the oaths that they have taken and make the conscious effort to put them into practice. 52

C.S.D.K - Each letter stands for a practice that will help increase one's knowledge of Ananda Marga as well as reinforces their spirituality.

C. Conduct Rules: One should know and follow these rules.

S. Seminar: "One should try to attend all seminars and retreats which are available."

D. Duty: Any duty that is given by one's acarya or another superior should be done happily.

K. Kiirtan, Tandava, and Kaoshikii: Kiirtan should be danced every day. Tandava should also be danced by men twice a day and Kaoshikii by women. Tandava should not be done by a woman. 53

Sarkar also called himself the "Leader of the New Renaissance." In 1958 he established Renaissance Universal (RU). It was created to help raise social awareness of humankind and strives for universal peace. It is believed that art and science should be used for service and self-realization rather than negative uses (i.e. money and creating weapons), that the gap between the rich and the poor should shrink by improving the condition of the lower class, improving education, and promoting unity and cultural diversity. RU accomplishes this by participating in service projects around the world. RU is a global organization and has sectors in about 150 countries around the world. 54

The practices of Ananda Marga are not uncommon to other religions. One such group is the Self-Realization Fellowship. This group is older than Ananda Marga (founded in 1920), but the similarities are apparent. Ananda Marga and the Self-Realization Fellowship both share the philosophy of Self-Realization (that fufillment can be achieved from within) and both also practice yoga and consider it an important practice in their spiritual lives. 55


Bibliography

Ananda Marga. 1981. The Spiritual Philosophy of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti. Denver, CO: Ananda Marga Publications.

Ananda Marga. 1993. Shrii P.R. Sakar and His Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Anandamitra, Didi. The Philosophy of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, A Commentary on Ananda Sutram. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii. 1973. Baba's Grace; Discourses of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti. Los Altos Hills, California: Ananda Marga Publications.

Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii. 1973. The Great Universe: Discourses on Society. Los Altos Hills, California: Ananda Marga Publications.

Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii. 1993. Discourses on Tanrta. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Avadhuta, Ácárya Vijayánanda. 1994. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Avadhuta, Shraddhananda. 1991. My Spiritual Life with Baba. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Avt., Tadbhavananda. 1990. Shraddhainjali. New Delhi: PROUT Research Center.

Bowler, John. 1997. Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Devadatta and Nandita. 1971. Paths of Bliss, Ananda Marga Yoga. Wichita, KS: Ananda Marga Publications.

Dhruvananda. 1991. The Supreme Friend: My Days with Baba. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Kamaleshvahananda, Dada Acarya. 1999. Yogic Treatment and Natural Remedies. Chiang Mai, Thailand: (transcript of his presentation at the 33rd World Vegetarian Congress).

Melton, J. Gordon. 1978 .The Encyclopedia of American Religions. Wilmington, N.C.: Mcgrath Publishing Co.

Sarkar, P.R [translated by Vijayananda Avadhuta and Jayanta Kumar]. 1990. Yoga Psychology. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Tarak, ed. 1990. Anada Marga, Social and Spiritual Practices. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.


References

1. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p78.

2. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p7.

3. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p7.

4. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p77.

5. http://www.anandamarga.org/books/index.html

6. Bowler, John. Oxford Dictionary of World Religions . Oxford, Oxford University Press, p.62.

7. http://www.anandamarga.org/- click on "BRIEF STORY" paragraph five.

8. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p6&10.

9. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p31&35-36.

10. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p40.

11. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p77.

12. Vijayananda, Acarya. The Life and Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p81-83.

13. http://www.anandamarga.org/- click on "BRIEF STORY" paragraph two.

14. Ananda Marga Shrii P.R. Sarkar and His Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p2.

15. Ananda Marga Shrii P.R. Sarkar and His Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p4-5.

16. Bowler, John. Oxford Dictionary of World Religions . Oxford, Oxford University Press, p.62 and Melton, J. Gordon. The Encyclopedia of American Religions . Wilmington, N.C.: McGrath Publishing Co., p381.

17. Ananda Marga Shrii P.R. Sarkar and His Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p7.

18. Ananda Marga Shrii P.R. Sarkar and His Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p3 and http://www.amurt.org/About.html, http://www.amurt.org/development.html, and http://www.amurt.org/disaster.html.

19. http://www.amurt.org/Women.html, http://home1.pacific.net.sg/~rucira/amurtel/relief.html, http://home1.pacific.net.sg/~rucira/amurtel/children.html, and http://home1.pacific.net.sg/~rucira/amurtel/women.html.

20. http://www.anandamarga.org/- click on "BRIEF STORY"

21. Ananda Marga Shrii P.R. Sarkar and His Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p4-5 and http://www.prout.org/Summary.html.

22. Ananda Marga Shrii P.R. Sarkar and His Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p7.

23. http://www.abhidhyan.org/Teachings/Tantra_Yoga_Tradition.htm.

24. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p3-4.

25. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p5.

26. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p5.

27. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p5.

28. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p6.

29. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p6-7.

30. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p7-8.

31. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p8-9.

32. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p10-11.

33. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p11-12.

34. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p12-13.

35. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p13.

36. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p13.

37. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p13.

38. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p13.

39. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p13-14.

40. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p14.

41. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p14.

42. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p14.

43. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p15.

44. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p15.

45. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p15.

46. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p.15-16.

47. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p16.

48. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p17.

49. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga

Publications., p17-18.

50. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p18.

51. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p18-19.

52. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p19.

53. Edited by Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p19-20.

54. Ananda Marga Shrii P.R. Sarkar and His Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p2 and http://www.ru.org/ru.html under "Principles of Renaissance Universal."

55. http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/SelfReal.html under "Beliefs."


Created by Angela An
For Soc 257, New Religious Movements
University of Virginia
Spring Term, 2000
Last modified: 07/17/01